Graph Numbers
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Graph numbers follow the same reduction rules as circle numbers, but the outside of a circle form becomes the top of a graph form, and the deepest space inside a circle form ibecomes the bottom of a graph form. Depth-value notation changes to path-value notation. Graph numbers add by horizontal stacking and multiply by vertical stacking.

Graph numbers (papers are here) were originally designed as a model for parallel computation. This animation was my first attempt to animate boundary numbers for teaching. The 3D flyby of fourteen shows that graph numbers are spatial rather than planar structures.

boundary math

number systems
circle numbers
∆ graph numbers

site structure

Boundary Integers as Graphs (2:46 minutes)

Not Yet Constructed...